The product of this internal urge becomes a real work of art, if it successfully evokes feelings to other people. Art as a Communication of Emotion According to Leo Tolstoy, art place a huge role in communication to its audience emotions that the artist previously experienced. This is a bold declaration, which recalls the Nietzschean aphorism that human existence is justified only as an aesthetic phenomenon. To take the simplest example; one man laughs, and another who hears If this labor has enlarged and enriched your own life this year, please consider aiding its sustenance with a one-time or loyal donation. By gaining awareness of each other’s feelings we can successfully practice empathy and … I have no staff, no interns, not even an assistant — a thoroughly one-woman labor of love that is also my life and my livelihood. Despite its many weaknesses, this system offers an interesting alternative to judging and appreciating art. Those who realize the impossibility of objectively defining beauty, turn to a study of taste asking why a thing pleases. His acute social concern is manifest not only in What Is Art? If people lacked this capacity to receive the thoughts conceived by the men who preceded them and to pass on to others their own thoughts, men would be like wild beasts… And if men lacked this other capacity of being infected by art, people might be almost more savage still, and, above all, more separated from, and more hostile to, one another. The distinction between real and counterfeit, good and bad art is Tolstoy’s contribution to the field of art criticism. In other words, Tolstoy argues that art was in his time judged as art just because it was labeled as art, a contention which still is carried today, the modern art world filled with pieces which are given consideration simply because rich patrons seduce the attention of so-called art experts and critics. 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Leo Tolstoy Takes a Rest in the Woods, Ilya Repin, 1891, State Tretyakov Gallery. Tolstoy puts forth a sentiment Susan Sontag would come to echo decades later in asserting that “art is a form of consciousness,” and frames the essential role of art as a vehicle of communication and empathy: In order correctly to define art, it is necessary, first of all, to cease to consider it as a means to pleasure and to consider it as one of the conditions of human life. Academic year. The presence in various degrees of these three conditions — individuality, clearness, and sincerity — decides the merit of a work of art as art, apart from subject matter. If a society lives, there must be a religious perception indicating the direction in which, more or less consciously, all its members tend. Course. After traveling Europe and witnessing the suffering and cruelty of the world, Tolstoy was transformed. On what might be called the full-blown version of expression theory — instances of which were held by Leo Tolstoy and by Clive Bell — expression is understood as a matter of the communication or transmission of emotion or feeling from artist to audience via the work of art. Leo Tolstoy created his own definition of art and succeeded in justifying it. StuDocu Summary Library EN. A work about the meaning of art and a fertile foundation on which truly beautiful ideas can flourish. 2017/2018 Portrait of Leo Tolstoy, Ilya Repin, 1912, Penaty Estate Museum of Ilya Repin. 1. pp. Tolstoy’s aesthetic values are based on communication of emotion, which falls in line with Collinwood’s ideas of art, in that art is the release of a pent up emotion. And what is the nature of the morality he uses for his artistic judgments? The turn of the 12th century BC in the Eastern Mediterranean was a turbulent time, to say the least. The Russian painter created a series of portraits of Tolstoy, which were exhibited together at the 2019 exhibition “Repin: The Myth of Tolstoy” at the State Museum L.N. Furthermore, a work that does not evoke feelings and spiritual union with others is counterfeit art. web.mnstate.edu/gracyk/courses/phil of art/tolstoy.outline.htm Tolstoy in peasant clothing, Ilya Repin, 1901, State Russian Museum. In contrast, it is real if it possesses all three. Need to cancel a recurring donation? … And it is upon this capacity of man to receive another man’s expression of feeling and experience those feelings himself, that the activity of art is based. In his essay “What is Art?” Leo Tolstoy, the author of War and Peace, defines art as a way to communicate emotion with the ultimate goal of uniting humanity. He died in 1810 at the age of 82 after suffering from pneumonia. It is safe to say that more than a century after Tolstoy’s death, “What is Art?” retains its appeal. (1896) is a written work about his ideas concerning the nature of art. (1896) is a written work about his ideas concerning the nature of art. The chief peculiarity of this feeling is that the receiver of a true artistic impression is so united to the artist that he feels as if the work were his own and not someone else’s — as if what it expresses were just what he had long been wishing to express. “إذا كان العمل جيداً كفن، فإن الإحساس الذي يعبر عنه الفنان سينتقل إلى الناس سواء كان أخلاقياً أم غير أخلاقي، وإذا انتقل الإحساس إلى الناس الآخرين، فإنهم … For Tolstoy, art was a means of communication between people which expressed feelings. The sincerity of the artist: the force with which the artist feels the emotion he/she transmits through his/her art. — At one point in his essay, he states that Shakespeare’s. This is, in my view, the strongest point of Tolstoy’s theory. In more human terms, this means that whenever you buy a book on Amazon from a link on here, I receive a small percentage of its price. Personally, I do not approach Tolstoy’s theory as a set of laws for understanding art. Before anything, we need to question if a work of art is moral. However, he also wrote multiple philosophical and theological texts as well as theatrical plays and short stories. pp. Tolstoy’s book concerns how art can express ideas of how to act right and what it’s purpose is. StuDocu Summary Library EN. A real work of art destroys, in the consciousness of the receiver, the separation between himself and the artist — not that alone, but also between himself and all whose minds receive this work of art. Work Cited “What is Art?” by Leo Tolstoy Essay | StudyHippo.com For Leo Tolstoy, art is a human activity which consists in conveying feelings (emotions) by external signs. Tolstoy names real art (i.e. Leo Tolstoy - From the Emotion category: Art is a human activity consisting in this, that one man consciously by means of certain signs, hands on to others feelings he has lived through, and that others are infected by those feelings and experience them. Theories of art based on beauty or taste inescapably include only that type of art that appeals to certain people: “First acknowledging a certain set of productions to be art (because they please us) and then framing such a theory of art that all those productions which please a certain circle of people should fit into it.”. His acute social concern is manifest not only in What Is Art? It is this movement forward in humanity that is emphasized by Tolstoy. Here's an example. What Is Art… Tolstoy’s theory has a lot of charming aspects. Which is to say that for Tolstoy art is a sort of language, a means of communication by which a person communicates his/her thoughts to another, a way to transfer information, a rational cognitive operation. , Tolstoy fell into a state of insufferable existential despair. Eventually, he left the army right after the end of the Crimean War in 1856. This rationale leads Tolstoy to a very bizarre idea. 59-65. The Russian painter created a series of portraits of Tolstoy, which were exhibited together at the 2019 exhibition, at the State Museum L.N. 35. You can also become a spontaneous supporter with a one-time donation in any amount: Partial to Bitcoin? Tolstoy s Aesthetics - Summary What Is Art - What Is Art. This was the doctrine that inspired Gandhi and was expressed as non-resistance to evil. Because we have forgotten, or never knew, the meaning of art, we have dubbed art as “an activity producing pleasure.” To this interpretation leads Tolstoy’s view that, even if a society recognizes no religion, it always has a religious morality. StuDocu University. If it is not moral, it is bad. In psychology of art, the relationship between art and emotion has newly been the subject of extensive study thanks to the intervention of esteemed art historian Alexander Nemerov. And the reason of this is that the conception of art has been based on the conception of beauty.”. These theories are made to justify the existing art canon which covers anything from. More information regarding the relationship between Tolstoy and Repin can be found in this, Leo Tolstoy in his Study at Yasnaya Polyana, , Ilya Repin, 1887, The Leo Tolstoy State Museum. but also in the essays he wrote on cultural and religious subjects. As soon as the spectator, hearer, or reader feels that the artist is infected by his own production, and writes, sings, or plays for himself, and not merely to act on others, this mental condition of the artist infects the receiver; and contrariwise, as soon as the spectator, reader, or hearer feels that the author is not writing, singing, or playing for his own satisfaction — does not himself feel what he wishes to express — but is doing it for him, the receiver, a resistance immediately springs up, and the most individual and the newest feelings and the cleverest technique not only fail to produce any infection but actually repel. Tolstoy. what is art summary. The individuality of the feeling transmitted: the more specific to a person the feeling, the more successful the artwork. University. Leo Graf Tolstoy. If this labor has enlarged and enriched your own life this year, please consider aiding its sustenance with a one-time or loyal donation. In addition, it removes the barrier between the receivers who experience unity through a common feeling. This core quality of art Tolstoy calls its “infectiousness,” and upon the artist’s ability to “infect” others depends the very recognition of something as art: If only the spectators or auditors are infected by the feelings which the author has felt, it is art. Aristotle’s definition of art focuses on humans’ ability to mimic real life and create a spectacle that causes certain emotions, like fear, to arise in the audience. , Vol. Tolstoy postulates art’s general purpose Every work of art causes the receiver to enter into a certain kind of relationship both with him who produced, or is producing, the art, and with all those who, simultaneously, previously, or subsequently, receive the same artistic impression. Book title What Is Art; Author. This means that art serves as a mechanism of cohesion for everyone. Namely, that it considers almost the totality of human activity as art. 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