[9] It emphasised the pressing need to protect citizens from secondhand smoke and stated that public opinion on the whole favoured legislative intervention. Twelve other states have enacted statewide smoking bans but have carved out an exception for certain establishments an… Smoking bans in public places significantly reduce the exposure of non-smokers to toxic fumes. [10], The main resistance to the change came from pro-smoking pressure groups and the owners of licensed premises such as pubs. [, Even though evidence had started to show the negative health effects of smoking from the 1950s onwards, the general public and many health professionals largely ignored or dismissed the evidence. The Health Bill was drafted in light of the consultation process following the white paper’s publication. [12], The number of smokers in the UK has also decreased, with less than 15 percent of people smoking in 2019, compared to 22 percent in 2006.[13][14]. Today, the UK is at the forefront of tobacco policy, leading the European league table for tobacco control. Political opposition did not entirely disappear at this point, the House of Lords Economic Affairs Committee accused the Government of overreacting to the threat posed by passive smoking and said that the smoking ban was symptomatic of MPs' failure to understand risk[5] on 7 June 2006. In 2004, a MORI opinion poll indicated that there was a slight majority of 54 percent in favour of a smoking ban. The committee took evidence from groups and individuals about how the proposals could work in practice. [24] However, the view of enforcement authorities is that the smoke-free workplace regulations are simple to understand, popular, and as a result largely 'self-policing'. 2. ii Health Act 2006 (c. 28) Enforcement 10 Enforcement 11 Obstruction etc. [12] While some attribute this to the smoking ban, it is difficult to determine whether the decreasing number of pubs may have been caused by the ban, the onset of the financial crisis of 2007, changing attitudes towards drinking, or other factors. [20] In 2007, at the time when the 2006 Act came into effect, 78 percent of the public were in favour of the legislation, which would grow to 83 percent by 2017. This provided evidence that such bans were enforceable. The tobacco industry invested in denying and distracting attention from the link between cigarettes and bad health, despite being aware of the health risks posed by smoking. As a result, people can eat at restaurants, enjoy a cup of coffee at coffee shops, and get into public transport without having to worry about their health. Penalty for smoking in the workplace Workers can be fined up to … [1], In the 1960s and 1970s, smoking in public places such as buses, trains, cinemas, theatres, public houses and restaurants in the UK was allowed. [, The main provisions are set out in section 2 of the Act: “(1) Premises are smoke-free if they are open to the public... (2) Premises are smoke-free if they are used as a place of work −Â, (a) by more than one person... or (b) where members of the public might attend for the purpose of seeking or receiving goods or services from the person or persons working there.”[, In the first 18 months after the implementation of the ban, 98.2 percent of premises inspected were found to be compliant. The tobacco industry invested in denying and distracting attention from the link between cigarettes and bad health, despite being aware of the health risks posed by smoking. [6] Other reports confirmed these findings: passive smoking was clearly harmful. Margot Gagliani “It helped create a shift in culture.” We turn ideas into action so that government works for everyone. The legislation was passed by the House of Lords, allowing a total smoking ban in enclosed public places to come into force in England. Smoking isn’t allowed in any enclosed workplace, public building or on public transport in the UK. It used to be commonplace for people to smoke in pubs and clubs. [15], A YouGov survey from 2017 also indicated growing support for the smoking ban, with 83 percent supporting the ban as against 78 percent in 2007. Today, the UK has some of the most comprehensive tobacco control regulations worldwide. In July 2007, a ban on smoking in enclosed public spaces and workplaces took effect throughout the UK under the 2006 Health Act. , Jamie Doward, 27 June 2010, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2010/jun/27/smoking-ban-cars-with-children. The U.S. federal government has banned smoking on all domestic flights and most foreign-bound flights originating from the U.S. Public places and offices in the UK began to impose voluntary and partial smoking bans through the 1980s and 1990s. [, ] In 2003, the UK government’s chief medical officer, Dr Liam Donaldson, launched his annual report, stating that “voluntary agreements were not reducing the health risks from passive smoking quickly enough”. Local councils were in charge of enforcing the law, and extra officers were taken on to ensure compliance. Palace of Westminster,[12] as for other Royal Palaces, although members of the House of Commons and the House of Lords agreed to observe the spirit of the ban and restrict any smoking within the grounds of Parliament to four designated outside areas.[13]. In England, the legislation resulted in a statistically significant reduction (-2.4 percent) in the number of hospital admissions for myocardial infarction (MI). [, ] Other reports confirmed these findings: passive smoking was clearly harmful. [7] In 2003, the UK government’s chief medical officer, Dr Liam Donaldson, launched his annual report, stating that “voluntary agreements were not reducing the health risks from passive smoking quickly enough”. specialist tobacconists in relation to sampling cigars and/or pipe tobacco. The ban came into force at 06:00 BST on 1 July 2007, as announced on 30 November 2006 by former Secretary of State for Health Patricia Hewitt, who called it "a huge step forward for public health". On 16 November 2004 a Public Health white paper proposed a smoking ban in almost all public places in England and Wales. New regulations brought a smoking ban into force in England at 6am on 1 July 2007. [, A YouGov survey from 2017 also indicated growing support for the smoking ban, with 83 percent supporting the ban as against 78 percent in 2007. , M Scollo, A Lal, A Hyland and S A Glantz, 1 March 2003, Tobacco Control, https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/tobaccocontrol/12/1/13.full.pdf, http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/74722/E82993.pdf. Tobacco advertising had been banned in England gradually starting with a ban on television advertising of cigarettes in 1965 to a complete ban on all tobacco advertising in 2005. We develop tools and resources for the change-making public servants of today and tomorrow. The smoking ban will take several years to come into force A ban on smoking at work, in restaurants and cafes will be announced by the Government today. Most of them just toss it on the streets. This led to a recognition by many other pub owners that the legislation had public support and that it was part of an inevitable progression. A smoking ban in England, making it illegal to smoke in all enclosed work places in England, came into force on 1 July 2007 as a consequence of the Health Act 2006. [ 4 ][ 5 ] The members of the House of Commons Health Select Committee also visited Ireland in order to be able to see the ban in practice. If smoking was banned, then heart-related sicknesses could possibly lower just like it did in the places where it was banned. [, ] At the same time, the tobacco industry has had to concede the negative health effects of smoking and secondhand smoke.[. [11] Owners or managers of any relevant premises had to display “No smoking” signs and take reasonable steps to ensure awareness of the ban and compliance with it. Learn more about the Fundamentals and how you can use them to access your own policies and initiatives. Owners or managers of any relevant premises had to display “No smoking” signs and take reasonable steps to ensure awareness of the ban and compliance with it. https://www.webcitation.org/5tkNlefMT?url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/health/article672477.ece, "BBC News - 'No plans' for smoking ban review", "Smoking ban exemptions bid defeated | News", "The Smoke-free (Premises and Enforcement) Regulations 2006", "The Smoke-free (Exemptions and Vehicles) Regulations 2007", "Smoking ban: impact on London's transport network", "Rail companies ban e-cigarettes from trains and stations", "First ScotRail withdraws smoking on Caledonian Sleeper service ahead of £1million refurbishment", "Blackpool smoke ban rebel loses licence", "Bar shuts as smoking rebel loses court fight", "Non-smoking landlord braced for High Court ban battle", "Smoking ban: why did we have to wait for so long? stated "Smoking is one of the leading causes of statistics." The Ban on Smoking in Public Places (2007) Starting Point For over forty years, government public health policies have increasingly focused on reducing the toll of death and disease from tobacco use. It was made clear that this would be achieved through a ban, as the existing voluntary regulations were seen as insufficient to protect people from the adverse health effects of passive smoking. However, the UK’s largest pub chain, JD Wetherspoon, said that “the smoking ban would be good for business”. Whether this is due to the smoking ban is debatable; however, it is likely that the ban has contributed to the decline in the number of smokers. Many countries across the world have instituted rules on smoking in public places. Some people believe smoking should be banned in all public places, and others believe there should be no restrictions on public smoking. The Health Committee was named lead committeeand had the task of taking this Bill through the legislative process. [, The number of pubs in the UK has fallen since the ban, with almost 7,000 pubs (out of an existing 56,000) closing between 2007 and 2015. [17] Smoking on board trains was banned in 2005 when both GNER and First Caledonian Sleeper withdrew smoking accommodation from their services. [, It is harder to separate the longer-term effects of the smoking ban in England. [, Throughout the 1970s and 80s, the dangers of smoking − and passive smoking − became more and more apparent to health professionals and the public. It is illegal. This was attributed to more smokers supporting the legislation.[30]. , Katie Forster, 1 July 2017, The Independent, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/health/smoking-ban-uk-smokers-numbers-fall-two-million-19-cigarettes-tobacco-drop-10-years-a7817236.html. Despite this knowledge that has been passed on through generations of how many health concerns smoking leads to, people continue to smoke themselves, or around other people. However, there were some objectors who generated higher-profile legal cases, for instance Hugh Howitt, also known as Hamish Howitt, the landlord of the Happy Scots Bar in Blackpool who was the first landlord to be prosecuted for permitting smoking in a smoke-free place under his control. In Wales, it was enforced from April 2nd. This was an Executive Bill and supported by all the other parties except the Conservatives. Smoking bans ensures that cigarette smoke won’t get into public places, preventing non-smokers from getting into contact with second-hand smoke (which can cause a wide range of respiratory illnesses including lung cancer). [, ]. Smoking bans are bad for business. There are many parks and buildings that ban smoking in pu… Research also showed that hospital admissions for heart attacks fell by 2.4 percent immediately following the change in the law, which is the equivalent of 1,200 fewer heart attacks per year. [12] There was a fall in respiratory illness reported by bar workers immediately after the ban. It was made clear that this would be achieved through a ban, as the existing voluntary regulations were seen as insufficient to protect people from the adverse health effects of passive smoking.[9][5]. [5], There was evidence from the WHO that legal restrictions − when carefully planned − would be effective in reducing the consumption of tobacco. The evidence of the health risks of passive smoking had been growing, and public opinion had started to support a ban. Again this amendment gained significant support and was carried with a large majority. Figures also soon showed a significant decline in hospital admissions … Since 2007, England has increased the age at which tobacco products can be purchased, introduced picture warnings on packaging, banned the sale of cigarettes through vending machines and rolled out standardised packaging for tobacco products. Join our network to receive a weekly bite-sized update on the conversations we're having with government problem solvers, policy trends we're tracking, tools we've developed for people in public services and events where you'll find us talking about how to find new solutions to some of government's trickiest challenges. Local councils were in charge of enforcing the law, and extra officers were taken on to ensure compliance. Smoking Should Be Banned in Public Places Smoking has been proven scientifically that it can cause many health factors such as lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, and many more. The owners and employees of “wet pubs” (those that would get the majority of revenues from drinking customers) were especially worried about the effect the ban would have on their clientele and revenue. Smoking is permitted in a private residence, although not in areas used as a shared work-space. , 1 July 2017, Ash (Action on Smoking on Health), http://ash.org.uk/media-and-news/press-releases-media-and-news/england-a-decade-after-the-smoking-ban-heading-for-a-smokefree-future/. All of our case studies have been assessed using the Public Impact Fundamentals: a simple framework and practical tool to help you assess your public policies and ensure the three fundamentals - Legitimacy, Policy and Action - are embedded in them. Initially, there was opposition to the ban from owners of licensed premises as well as pro-smoking lobbying groups. Journal of the American Medical Association 2006;296(14):1742–8 [cited 2014 May 12]. [11], The main provisions are set out in section 2 of the Act: “(1) Premises are smoke-free if they are open to the public... (2) Premises are smoke-free if they are used as a place of work − (a) by more than one person... or (b) where members of the public might attend for the purpose of seeking or receiving goods or services from the person or persons working there.”[11]Â, Scotland had already banned smoking in public premises and workplaces in March 2006. It is an example of an essay where you have to give your opinion as to whether you agree or disagree. It is dangerous to health. List of Cons of Smoking in Public Places. We want as many changemakers as possible to learn how to design and deliver impactful policies and make our vision government a reality. As stated by Knebel, smoking continues to be one of the most controversial studied topics in society. [4] On the same day, the government released the results of the public consultation, after Cancer Research UK demanded them under the Freedom of Information Act, which revealed that nearly 9 out of 10 respondents wanted a total ban.[4]. Health Secretary Patricia Hewitt voted in favour of the amendment and, in so doing, voted against her own Department's then publicly stated policy (i.e. , House of Commons Health Committee, 15 December 2005, UK Parliament, https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmselect/cmhealth/485/485.pdf, https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukdsi/2016/9780111147481/contents, http://www.hse.gov.uk/contact/faqs/smoking.htm, https://www.politics.co.uk/reference/smoking-ban. On 14 February 2006, after the third reading of the Health Bill, MPs voted by 364 votes to 21 in favour, and it was therefore approved to pass into statute. H. Mamudu, P. Cairney and D. Studlar, 15 January 2015, Public Administration, 93, 4, 856–873, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/padm.12143, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-17264442. [, ] This facilitated the implementation of the ban, as it became increasingly easier to enforce the regulation.Â, Additionally, licensed premises in the UK were already highly regulated. 3) Smoking should be banned in public places Causes serious health problem According to Action on Smoking and Health (ASH), almost 100 million Americans are suffering from health problems like asthma, lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, chronic sinusitis, emphysema, SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) and other breathing-related conditions which make them especially susceptible to … This amounted to 1,200 emergency admissions for MI in the year following the introduction of smoke-free legislation.”[26]. It concluded that environmental (secondhand) tobacco smoke causes lung cancer among non-smokers. These initiatives have reduced smoking prevalence from After an additional round of consultations, the ban was effected through the Health Act 2006. As the Institute for Government said, “the final policy was the culmination of a popular consensus that government was right to intervene in matters of public health... By 2006, public opinion appeared to strongly favour a comprehensive ban.”[5], Public support in favour of smoke-free premises had been growing in the years leading up to the smoking ban. As the Institute for Government said, “the final policy was the culmination of a popular consensus that government was right to intervene in matters of public health... By 2006, public opinion appeared to strongly favour a comprehensive ban.”[, Public support in favour of smoke-free premises had been growing in the years leading up to the smoking ban. The sample answer shows you how you can present the opposing argument first, that is not your opinion, and then present your opinion in the following paragraph. [15], The Association of Train Operating Companies and Network Rail introduced an extended ban on smoking covering all railway property including all National Rail station platforms whether enclosed or not. On 2 December 2008, Howitt effectively had his premises licence revoked, after an appeal by Blackpool Council was upheld; he was not allowed to appeal, and Howitt had to close the Delboys Bar following the decision.[21][22]. Almost all enclosed and substantially enclosed public places and workplaces are included, as are public transport and most work vehicles and company cars. As of July 2018, 26 states have enacted statewide bans on smoking in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants: Alaska, Arizona, California, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin. By May 2006, more than a year before the official ban, the pub chain had already banned smoking in all its premises. The smoking ban came into force in Scotland on March 26th 2006. In fact, smoking has been banned in 843 parks and more than 150 beaches in the last two decades. The 2006 Act made clear provisions for enforcement of the act in relevant premises, and imposed penalties on those contravening or failing to enforce the ban. There have been some incidents of violence perpetrated by people refusing to obey the ban, in one of which a former heavyweight boxer, James Oyebola, was shot in the head after he asked patrons at a nightclub to stop smoking[23] and later died of his injuries. Europe Many governments have introduced smoking bans. The legislation, introduced on the 1 st July 2007, now makes it illegal to smoke in all public enclosed or substantially enclosed area and workplaces. [, ] There was a fall in respiratory illness reported by bar workers immediately after the ban. I don't like having to walk around smoking areas in public because it's a waste of my time and, if I don't, I'm risking my health. The owners and employees of “wet pubs” (those that would get the majority of revenues from drinking customers) were especially worried about the effect the ban would have on their clientele and revenue.[18]. On 2 August 2007, Howitt appeared before Blackpool Magistrates' Court and pleaded not guilty to 12 counts of failing to stop people smoking in his pub. Similar bans had already been introduced by the rest of the United Kingdom: in Scotland on 26 March 2006, Wales on 2 April 2007 and Northern Ireland on 30 April 2007. [5], In 2005, researchers found that passive smoking “increases the risk of coronary heart disease by approximately 30 percent. [, The Choosing Health white paper was based on extensive evidence favouring a ban. EuropeEducationHealth, In July 2007, a ban on smoking in enclosed public spaces and workplaces took effect throughout the UK under the 2006 Health Act. The members of the House of Commons Health Select Committee also visited Ireland in order to be able to see the ban in practice. This therefore replaced the earlier successful amendment which would have allowed smoking only in private members' clubs. In March 2004, Ireland became the first European country to institute an outright ban on smoking in the workplace. [, ] Additionally, a 2003 review of 97 studies from around the world had shown that a smoking ban would not necessarily harm the hospitality and pub industry by reducing sales or employment. The Health Minister introduced the Smoking, Health & Social Care Bill on 16 December 2004. There was a clear alignment of interests between the government, citizens and medical professionals in introducing a ban. After an additional round of consultations, the ban was effected through the Health Act 2006. Despite initial opposition by pro-smoking lobbying groups and business, the ban has been adopted and complied with throughout the country. [18][19], The Tyne and Wear Metro was the first public transport system to ban in its entirety which has been enforced since the system first opened in 1980. [16] The ban has since been extended to cover the use of Electronic cigarettes. [, There was evidence from the WHO that legal restrictions − when carefully planned, would be effective in reducing the consumption of tobacco. [4][5], In 2002, a report by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization (WHO), quantified the risks of passive smoking. Smoking in public places has been banned following the passage of the Public Health Bill by Parliament on Wednesday. [, ] While some attribute this to the smoking ban, it is difficult to determine whether the decreasing number of pubs may have been caused by the ban, the onset of the financial crisis of 2007, changing attitudes towards drinking, or other factors. The nationwide smoking ban comes after Galicia and the Canary Islands introduced their own bans on smoking in outdoor public places yesterday. We are putting our vision for government into practice through projects and partnerships that help us build a movement together. [17], The main stakeholders of the smoking ban were medical professionals, local councils, the owners of licensed premises and others who were obliged to comply with the 2006 Act, the police, and the general public.Â, As is customary with significant legislation in England, there was a comprehensive consultation process with all stakeholders when drafting and reviewing the white paper. It is thought that this shift was mostly due to more smokers supporting the ban. 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